Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility
This study involves a male patient who is sixty years old. He is of Asian origin and according to his genetic component; he is susceptible to diabetes type II and prostate cancer. The relationship between the health of the patient and genetic composition is very complex. Genes together with environmental factors are the ones that determine the risk of diseases.
Pathophysiology of gastritis
The patient is an old Asian man and is thus prone to gastritis. Gastritis is an inflammation on the stomach lining, and it may result in infections. Gastritis occurs as a result of injuries, use of drugs and alcohol (Johnson, 1987). Acute gastritis occurs suddenly while acute occurs slowly over time.
Acute gastritis results from chemical substances including alcohol and drugs, stress and some foods which are spicy. These factors stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and this affects the Gastro mucous (Wiot & Audiovisual Radiology of Cincinnati, 1983).
Chronic gastritis is as a result of organisms invading the surface of the gastric cells and destroys the metaplasia and glands. This results in irritation and affects peristalsis thus resulting to stiffness. As a result, blood vessels are damaged and ruptured causing bleeding.
Gastro esophagus Reflux Disease (GERD) is a condition where there is the production of liquid content in the stomach. The liquid contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin which later enters the esophagus. In the esophagus, it destroys the lining and this result to inflammation. This condition is a chronic condition and thus its treatment is continuous. It can be treated by change of diet, use of antacids and surgery (Yardley & Abell, 1977).
Peptic ulcer disease occurs when mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum is interfered. It results to defection of the mucosal hindering their ability to defend themselves. This results to pain in the stomach, tenderness and burning discomfort.
Gastritis is thus the erosion, inflammation and irritation of the lining of the stomach which can occur gradually or suddenly. It can be caused by bacteria, anemia and infection by viruses. If not treated, gastritis results to loss of much blood and this increases the chances of developing stomach cancer (Johnson, 1987).
Diagnosis of Gastritis
The doctor need to check individual and family medical history, and this should be done by doing physical evaluation.
The diagnostic test for gastritis is endoscopy system with a biopsy of the stomach. The doctor will provide them with drugs which will reduce anxiety before conducting endoscopy process (Yardley & Abell, 1977).
The doctor uses the endoscope to check the lining along the esophagus, stomach and some parts of the small intestine.
Tests used to identify the cause of gastritis complications
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series; the patient swallow’s barium liquid that makes the digestive tract visible for X-ray purpose. The images obtained from X-ray may indicate stomach lining (Wiot & Audiovisual Radiology of Cincinnati, 1983).
Blood test; the doctor may want to check for anemia, a condition that the blood hemoglobin is diminished. Anemia can be a sign of chronic bleeding inside the stomach.
Stool test; the test help in check any content of blood in the stool. This test can show some form of bleeding in the stomach.
Tests for H. pylori infection; this can be done by testing a patient's breath and blood to check for signs of infection (Johnson, 1987).
The treatment for gastritis involves:
Taking of antacids drugs which assist in reducing stomach acidity level that cause irritation to affected parts of the stomach.
Avoiding consuming hot and spiced food.
Gastritis that results from H. pylori infection, the doctor can prescribe a routine of antibiotics and antacid drug to help in blocking the production of hydrochloric in the stomach (Yardley & Abell, 1977).
In case the gastritis is caused by pernicious anemia, B12 vitamin should given to the patient.
Patients with Gastritis should be advised to avoid irritating foods for example, gluten from the wheat.
Epidemiology of gastritis
Gastritis affect up to 25% of the population in Asia, and its diagnosis is 50% of the patient referred to the doctors for examination. Gastritis symptoms are reported up to 15 to 25% of the patient taking NSAIDs.
Gastritis Clinical Presentation
History; Family history may result to patient having gastritis due to inheritance.
Physical; Physical findings are always normal with mild tenderness in the stomach
Causes; using of drugs such as Drugs - NSAIDs, such as aspirin
Pathophysiology gastritis, the gastric mucous membrane becomes edematous, and to hyperemic and undergoes superficial erosion. It secretes gastric juice, containing little acid with much mucus. Superficial ulceration may happen and can cause hemorrhage (Wiot & Audiovisual Radiology of Cincinnati, 1983).