African American Community Education
This paper focuses on the Covenant and other resourceful materials. It will seek to look at the history of the African American education system. Here, issues such a discriminative education systems will be addressed and a comparison made to the requirements of the covenant. In this paper, the role emancipatory schools will be covered and compared and contrasted with school-based prevention in such communities. Cultural marginalization of the African Americans will feature as well in this paper.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a United Nations body with more than 160 members. The United States was a member too but had not provided ratifications for this UN law. This body states that member states should be committed to providing economic, cultural and rights. Encompassed in these rights included the right to education, the right to health, labor rights, and the right to an adequate living standard.
Having ratified the above UN law, the United states have to address issues of equal standards of education to all people especially the minority populations, non-English speakers, people ravishing in poverty, the handicapped and many such peoples (Anderson, 2004). For instance, the African Americans have historically been marginalized in the field of education.
African Americans have been living in America for centuries, earlier as slaves and later as free citizens of United States. However, discrimination had consistently seen the African Americans receive an education inferior to that of the majority (the whites). In fact, segregation of blacks and whites in American schools has persisted from those early days. This is also manifested the country and has been manifested in schools in the late 20th century.
According to research, formal education is a powerful medium for shaping social attitudes, values cultural norms while maximizing opportunity to occupational, social and the economic success (Belgrave & Allison, (2006). The level and quality of educational attainment either open the doors to opportunity or close them. This means that the African American community has been at a loss throughout this discriminative phase. No wonder the African American communities have been rampantly characterized by poverty, crime and substance abuse among such other vices.
After the African American students were allowed to school together with the majority students (white students), a cultural discrimination hatched (Michener, 1980). In such school, the syllabus generally covers the white culture alone. They do not touch on cultural aspects of the African Americans prior to the enslavement of their forefathers. This means that the syllabus impose on them a white culture. This is contrary to the covenant.
Rofes & Stulberg, (2004) notes that the role of emancipatory schools is a key concern as it tries to address various issues that affect the education of the African American community. These schools, unlike other schools have resulted into more success in education and other social aspects of African American students. Research has affirmed this.” For example, students in Afro centric schools do well above the norm on standardized college tests well before graduating from high school. They also have high graduation and collegiate enrollment rates. Such research has been done by Kelly M. Lewis. The research was conducted in a Black, citizenry and school situated in a neighborhood where poverty, crime, gang activity, homelessness, and abandoned properties are prevalent (Rofes & Stulberg 2004).
The historical injustices in the education sector in the United States against the minority groups need to be addressed. There are ways to ensure that African Americans are not educationally discriminated. For instance, emancipatory schools have been seen to achieve desired results academically but are few in the US. Such institutions should be made adequate to bridge the educational gap between the majority and the minority.